Pandemic Vaccine Shots Urged for Healthcare Workers

first_imgHealth care workers should be first in line when vaccines against the swine flu virus are ready and approved, an expert panel at the World Health Organization concluded in a meeting last week. The Strategic Advisory Group of Experts on immunization (SAGE) also said countries should consider vaccinating various other groups—such as those most at risk of death and disease—but said each country should map out its own strategy, depending on what it hopes to achieve and how much vaccine it has available. SAGE held a special meeting on 7 July to discuss the evolving pandemic and vaccine development. A summary of its recommendations, endorsed by WHO Director-General Margaret Chan on 11 July, was released in a statement today and discussed during a press briefing (audio file) by Marie-Paule Kieny, head of WHO’s Initiative for Vaccine Research. Protecting doctors, nurses, and other medical staff is the key to keep healthcare systems running, SAGE concluded. If countries have enough vaccine, they can reduce disease and death by vaccinating groups at higher risk, such as pregnant women, those with chronic health conditions, or even all healthy young adults between 15 and 49 years old, the age group that appears most vulnerable. They can also choose to try to slow the transmission of the virus, in which case vaccinating healthy children is an option, Kieny says, because they are an “amplifier of transmission.” Sign up for our daily newsletterGet more great content like this delivered right to you!Country *AfghanistanAland IslandsAlbaniaAlgeriaAndorraAngolaAnguillaAntarcticaAntigua and BarbudaArgentinaArmeniaArubaAustraliaAustriaAzerbaijanBahamasBahrainBangladeshBarbadosBelarusBelgiumBelizeBeninBermudaBhutanBolivia, Plurinational State ofBonaire, Sint Eustatius and SabaBosnia and HerzegovinaBotswanaBouvet IslandBrazilBritish Indian Ocean TerritoryBrunei DarussalamBulgariaBurkina FasoBurundiCambodiaCameroonCanadaCape VerdeCayman IslandsCentral African RepublicChadChileChinaChristmas IslandCocos (Keeling) IslandsColombiaComorosCongoCongo, The Democratic Republic of theCook IslandsCosta RicaCote D’IvoireCroatiaCubaCuraçaoCyprusCzech RepublicDenmarkDjiboutiDominicaDominican RepublicEcuadorEgyptEl SalvadorEquatorial GuineaEritreaEstoniaEthiopiaFalkland Islands (Malvinas)Faroe IslandsFijiFinlandFranceFrench GuianaFrench PolynesiaFrench Southern TerritoriesGabonGambiaGeorgiaGermanyGhanaGibraltarGreeceGreenlandGrenadaGuadeloupeGuatemalaGuernseyGuineaGuinea-BissauGuyanaHaitiHeard Island and Mcdonald IslandsHoly See (Vatican City State)HondurasHong KongHungaryIcelandIndiaIndonesiaIran, Islamic Republic ofIraqIrelandIsle of ManIsraelItalyJamaicaJapanJerseyJordanKazakhstanKenyaKiribatiKorea, Democratic People’s Republic ofKorea, Republic ofKuwaitKyrgyzstanLao People’s Democratic RepublicLatviaLebanonLesothoLiberiaLibyan Arab JamahiriyaLiechtensteinLithuaniaLuxembourgMacaoMacedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic ofMadagascarMalawiMalaysiaMaldivesMaliMaltaMartiniqueMauritaniaMauritiusMayotteMexicoMoldova, Republic ofMonacoMongoliaMontenegroMontserratMoroccoMozambiqueMyanmarNamibiaNauruNepalNetherlandsNew CaledoniaNew ZealandNicaraguaNigerNigeriaNiueNorfolk IslandNorwayOmanPakistanPalestinianPanamaPapua New GuineaParaguayPeruPhilippinesPitcairnPolandPortugalQatarReunionRomaniaRussian FederationRWANDASaint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da CunhaSaint Kitts and NevisSaint LuciaSaint Martin (French part)Saint Pierre and MiquelonSaint Vincent and the GrenadinesSamoaSan MarinoSao Tome and PrincipeSaudi ArabiaSenegalSerbiaSeychellesSierra LeoneSingaporeSint Maarten (Dutch part)SlovakiaSloveniaSolomon IslandsSomaliaSouth AfricaSouth Georgia and the South Sandwich IslandsSouth SudanSpainSri LankaSudanSurinameSvalbard and Jan MayenSwazilandSwedenSwitzerlandSyrian Arab RepublicTaiwanTajikistanTanzania, United Republic ofThailandTimor-LesteTogoTokelauTongaTrinidad and TobagoTunisiaTurkeyTurkmenistanTurks and Caicos IslandsTuvaluUgandaUkraineUnited Arab EmiratesUnited KingdomUnited StatesUruguayUzbekistanVanuatuVenezuela, Bolivarian Republic ofVietnamVirgin Islands, BritishWallis and FutunaWestern SaharaYemenZambiaZimbabweI also wish to receive emails from AAAS/Science and Science advertisers, including information on products, services and special offers which may include but are not limited to news, careers information & upcoming events.Required fields are included by an asterisk(*)Meanwhile, the amount of vaccine available globally could be much lower than hoped due to a problem in the production process. Kieny said that for reasons that aren’t fully understood, vaccine companies that use eggs to grow vaccine viruses get yields of only 25% to 50% of those obtained during the production of seasonal vaccine. WHO’s network of influenza labs is currently producing a new set of seed viruses that Kieny hopes will result in higher yields. If they succeed, delivery of the vaccine need not be delayed, Kieny said, because regulatory agencies are likely to accept the clinical trials expected to being soon* with the low-yield strains, even if high-yield strains are used to produce vaccine. But if yields remain low, it would take many more months to produce the billions of vaccine doses WHO is hoping for, according to Kieny’s presentation at the SAGE meeting. Total vaccine supply will depend on several other unknowns, including whether 15 micrograms of antigen is enough—as is the case with seasonal vaccine—and whether one or two shots are needed. A key factor is how many companies will use so-called adjuvants, which boost the immune response and thus lower the amount of antigen needed per shot. A recent survey among 36 vaccine producers, also presented by Kieny, showed that only 12 of the 33 proposed vaccine formulations will contain an adjuvant. Many companies have never used adjuvants and adding them now would raise additional safety issues, Kieny said. “It’s very difficult to mix antigen from one company with adjuvant from another company when they have never been tested together.” *The trials are not currently under way as previously reported.last_img read more

Open Letters Fly as ESF Nears Key Vote on Future

first_imgA flurry of open letters have been flitting across Europe this week in the run-up to a special general assembly of the European Science Foundation (ESF), which is about to make a key decision on its future as a research funding agency. On 4 and 5 May, the assembly will decide whether ESF should continue funding cross-border research and networks, or should transform into a new body formulating research strategy and lobbying on behalf of Europe’s national funding bodies. A recently-formed group of researchers, calling themselves Eulenspiegel Action, has been lobbying hard against the transformation, arguing that dropping ESF’s grant-giving activities will be a loss for Europe-wide, curiosity-driven science. Many members of ESF—including agencies such as Germany’s Max Planck Society and the U.K. Science and Technology Facilities Council—are also part of an informal grouping called European Heads of Research Councils, or EuroHORCs. Last year, EuroHORCS decided they wanted to have a bigger voice in matters of European science policy. As they provide most of the funding for ESF, they proposed merging it with EuroHORCS and transforming it into a new science policy organization. Support for cross-border research is now available from other sources, such as the European Union, they argued, so ESF’s granting function was no longer needed. But national academies of science that do not fund research, which are currently also members of ESF, expressed doubts about the transformation because they would be excluded from the new body. Sign up for our daily newsletterGet more great content like this delivered right to you!Country *AfghanistanAland IslandsAlbaniaAlgeriaAndorraAngolaAnguillaAntarcticaAntigua and BarbudaArgentinaArmeniaArubaAustraliaAustriaAzerbaijanBahamasBahrainBangladeshBarbadosBelarusBelgiumBelizeBeninBermudaBhutanBolivia, Plurinational State ofBonaire, Sint Eustatius and SabaBosnia and HerzegovinaBotswanaBouvet IslandBrazilBritish Indian Ocean TerritoryBrunei DarussalamBulgariaBurkina FasoBurundiCambodiaCameroonCanadaCape VerdeCayman IslandsCentral African RepublicChadChileChinaChristmas IslandCocos (Keeling) IslandsColombiaComorosCongoCongo, The Democratic Republic of theCook IslandsCosta RicaCote D’IvoireCroatiaCubaCuraçaoCyprusCzech RepublicDenmarkDjiboutiDominicaDominican RepublicEcuadorEgyptEl SalvadorEquatorial GuineaEritreaEstoniaEthiopiaFalkland Islands (Malvinas)Faroe IslandsFijiFinlandFranceFrench GuianaFrench PolynesiaFrench Southern TerritoriesGabonGambiaGeorgiaGermanyGhanaGibraltarGreeceGreenlandGrenadaGuadeloupeGuatemalaGuernseyGuineaGuinea-BissauGuyanaHaitiHeard Island and Mcdonald IslandsHoly See (Vatican City State)HondurasHong KongHungaryIcelandIndiaIndonesiaIran, Islamic Republic ofIraqIrelandIsle of ManIsraelItalyJamaicaJapanJerseyJordanKazakhstanKenyaKiribatiKorea, Democratic People’s Republic ofKorea, Republic ofKuwaitKyrgyzstanLao People’s Democratic RepublicLatviaLebanonLesothoLiberiaLibyan Arab JamahiriyaLiechtensteinLithuaniaLuxembourgMacaoMacedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic ofMadagascarMalawiMalaysiaMaldivesMaliMaltaMartiniqueMauritaniaMauritiusMayotteMexicoMoldova, Republic ofMonacoMongoliaMontenegroMontserratMoroccoMozambiqueMyanmarNamibiaNauruNepalNetherlandsNew CaledoniaNew ZealandNicaraguaNigerNigeriaNiueNorfolk IslandNorwayOmanPakistanPalestinianPanamaPapua New GuineaParaguayPeruPhilippinesPitcairnPolandPortugalQatarReunionRomaniaRussian FederationRWANDASaint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da CunhaSaint Kitts and NevisSaint LuciaSaint Martin (French part)Saint Pierre and MiquelonSaint Vincent and the GrenadinesSamoaSan MarinoSao Tome and PrincipeSaudi ArabiaSenegalSerbiaSeychellesSierra LeoneSingaporeSint Maarten (Dutch part)SlovakiaSloveniaSolomon IslandsSomaliaSouth AfricaSouth Georgia and the South Sandwich IslandsSouth SudanSpainSri LankaSudanSurinameSvalbard and Jan MayenSwazilandSwedenSwitzerlandSyrian Arab RepublicTaiwanTajikistanTanzania, United Republic ofThailandTimor-LesteTogoTokelauTongaTrinidad and TobagoTunisiaTurkeyTurkmenistanTurks and Caicos IslandsTuvaluUgandaUkraineUnited Arab EmiratesUnited KingdomUnited StatesUruguayUzbekistanVanuatuVenezuela, Bolivarian Republic ofVietnamVirgin Islands, BritishWallis and FutunaWestern SaharaYemenZambiaZimbabweI also wish to receive emails from AAAS/Science and Science advertisers, including information on products, services and special offers which may include but are not limited to news, careers information & upcoming events.Required fields are included by an asterisk(*) Eulenspiegel Action joined the debate this year, arguing that the funding from the European Union is too policy-driven and that blue skies research will lose out if ESF’s funding activities are abandoned. Yesterday, some younger members of Eulenspiegel Action said in an open letter to ESF President Ian Halliday that ESF should continue to fund research projects aimed at creating European networks and to provide grants that foster mobility for young researchers and technicians. “Science organizations should NOT evolve into lobbying offices,” the letter says, and it calls for more debate on the proposal to transform ESF: “Whether scientists agree with this option has not been assessed since up to now (a few days before the vote) no information about the objectives, activities, road map or budget of this new organization has been publicized and therefore no discussion with practising scientists could have been carried out.” Halliday responded, stating, “We are in a very fluid situation between the different options. It is a very curious situation where we are all agreed on the major aspirations and aims but are having difficult differences of opinion as to how to achieve these aspirations.” In response, Jean-Pierre Henriet of Ghent University in Belgium, a spokesperson for Eulenspiegel Action, called on ESF to stick to the vision and road map that its governing council agreed to in 2008. “Winding the clock back to pre-ESF times of duplication of infrastructures and waste of resources would not be a progress,” he wrote.last_img read more

French Scientists Protest Allègre’s Role in New Ecology Foundation

first_imgPARIS—Former French Science Minister Claude Allègre is at the center of a new controversy stemming from his role as a prominent climate change skeptic. Sixty members of the French Academy of Sciences have written to the chancellor of the Institute of France, historian Gabriel de Broglie, objecting to Allègre’s position at the new Fondation Ecologie d’Avenir, one of some 100 active foundations sheltered by the institute. The institute is also the umbrella organization for France’s five academies, including that for sciences. The 11 October letter, signed by such luminaries as 1997 physics Nobelist Claude Cohen-Tannoudji and former Academy president and physicist É douard Brézin, complains that several academy members discovered the existence of the foundation from press reports last week. The signatories note that an academy report last year disavowed Allègre’s view that industry isn’t a significant driver of climate change. In particular, the report stated that the increase in CO2 emissions and, to a lesser degree, other greenhouse gases were “unquestionably due to human activity.” That increase, it adds, “constitutes a threat to the climate” and contributes to ocean acidification. Sign up for our daily newsletterGet more great content like this delivered right to you!Country *AfghanistanAland IslandsAlbaniaAlgeriaAndorraAngolaAnguillaAntarcticaAntigua and BarbudaArgentinaArmeniaArubaAustraliaAustriaAzerbaijanBahamasBahrainBangladeshBarbadosBelarusBelgiumBelizeBeninBermudaBhutanBolivia, Plurinational State ofBonaire, Sint Eustatius and SabaBosnia and HerzegovinaBotswanaBouvet IslandBrazilBritish Indian Ocean TerritoryBrunei DarussalamBulgariaBurkina FasoBurundiCambodiaCameroonCanadaCape VerdeCayman IslandsCentral African RepublicChadChileChinaChristmas IslandCocos (Keeling) IslandsColombiaComorosCongoCongo, The Democratic Republic of theCook IslandsCosta RicaCote D’IvoireCroatiaCubaCuraçaoCyprusCzech RepublicDenmarkDjiboutiDominicaDominican RepublicEcuadorEgyptEl SalvadorEquatorial GuineaEritreaEstoniaEthiopiaFalkland Islands (Malvinas)Faroe IslandsFijiFinlandFranceFrench GuianaFrench PolynesiaFrench Southern TerritoriesGabonGambiaGeorgiaGermanyGhanaGibraltarGreeceGreenlandGrenadaGuadeloupeGuatemalaGuernseyGuineaGuinea-BissauGuyanaHaitiHeard Island and Mcdonald IslandsHoly See (Vatican City State)HondurasHong KongHungaryIcelandIndiaIndonesiaIran, Islamic Republic ofIraqIrelandIsle of ManIsraelItalyJamaicaJapanJerseyJordanKazakhstanKenyaKiribatiKorea, Democratic People’s Republic ofKorea, Republic ofKuwaitKyrgyzstanLao People’s Democratic RepublicLatviaLebanonLesothoLiberiaLibyan Arab JamahiriyaLiechtensteinLithuaniaLuxembourgMacaoMacedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic ofMadagascarMalawiMalaysiaMaldivesMaliMaltaMartiniqueMauritaniaMauritiusMayotteMexicoMoldova, Republic ofMonacoMongoliaMontenegroMontserratMoroccoMozambiqueMyanmarNamibiaNauruNepalNetherlandsNew CaledoniaNew ZealandNicaraguaNigerNigeriaNiueNorfolk IslandNorwayOmanPakistanPalestinianPanamaPapua New GuineaParaguayPeruPhilippinesPitcairnPolandPortugalQatarReunionRomaniaRussian FederationRWANDASaint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da CunhaSaint Kitts and NevisSaint LuciaSaint Martin (French part)Saint Pierre and MiquelonSaint Vincent and the GrenadinesSamoaSan MarinoSao Tome and PrincipeSaudi ArabiaSenegalSerbiaSeychellesSierra LeoneSingaporeSint Maarten (Dutch part)SlovakiaSloveniaSolomon IslandsSomaliaSouth AfricaSouth Georgia and the South Sandwich IslandsSouth SudanSpainSri LankaSudanSurinameSvalbard and Jan MayenSwazilandSwedenSwitzerlandSyrian Arab RepublicTaiwanTajikistanTanzania, United Republic ofThailandTimor-LesteTogoTokelauTongaTrinidad and TobagoTunisiaTurkeyTurkmenistanTurks and Caicos IslandsTuvaluUgandaUkraineUnited Arab EmiratesUnited KingdomUnited StatesUruguayUzbekistanVanuatuVenezuela, Bolivarian Republic ofVietnamVirgin Islands, BritishWallis and FutunaWestern SaharaYemenZambiaZimbabweI also wish to receive emails from AAAS/Science and Science advertisers, including information on products, services and special offers which may include but are not limited to news, careers information & upcoming events.Required fields are included by an asterisk(*) The report reflected the outcome of a debate held by the academy at the request of then science minister Valérie Pécresse in response to the outcry over Allègre’s book, The Climate Fraud. More than 400 French climatologists had asked Pécresse to disavow Allègre’s book, which they said was riddled with errors, and to express confidence in the climate research community. Allègre, who was minister from 1997 to 2000, created the foundation, which takes a multidisciplinary approach to addressing major ecological challenges facing the planet. The foundation’s home page features an editorial by Allègre and a video by new medicine Nobelist Jules Hoffman, who praises the foundation for bringing together scientists, economists, philosophers, and sociologists to find “a new way for satisfying those who love nature and depend on agricultural output.” The foundation held its first conference last week, on bio-inspired technologies, and plans others on new technologies in agriculture. The French daily Libération reported in an online blog that Catherine Bréchignac, perpetual secretary of the Academy of Sciences, former president of the basic research agency CNRS, and chair of the foundation’s executive committee, said in a radio interview last week that the row was a “personal squabble” and that Allègre “would play no role in the foundation.” ScienceInsider was unable to reach Bréchignac for further comment. The Institute of France did not respond to a request for comment on the academicians’ letter, nor did five other members of the foundation’s orientation committee. Hoffman said he was not available for comment today.last_img read more

Podcast: Spider Webs, Ancient Plants, and the Science of Massage

first_imgWhat makes spider webs so strong? Did plants freeze the planet? And why does massage make us feel good? Science’s Online News Editor David Grimm chats about these stories and more with Science’s Sarah Crespi. (Listen to the full Science podcast and more podcasts.)Sign up for our daily newsletterGet more great content like this delivered right to you!Country *AfghanistanAland IslandsAlbaniaAlgeriaAndorraAngolaAnguillaAntarcticaAntigua and BarbudaArgentinaArmeniaArubaAustraliaAustriaAzerbaijanBahamasBahrainBangladeshBarbadosBelarusBelgiumBelizeBeninBermudaBhutanBolivia, Plurinational State ofBonaire, Sint Eustatius and SabaBosnia and HerzegovinaBotswanaBouvet IslandBrazilBritish Indian Ocean TerritoryBrunei DarussalamBulgariaBurkina FasoBurundiCambodiaCameroonCanadaCape VerdeCayman IslandsCentral African RepublicChadChileChinaChristmas IslandCocos (Keeling) IslandsColombiaComorosCongoCongo, The Democratic Republic of theCook IslandsCosta RicaCote D’IvoireCroatiaCubaCuraçaoCyprusCzech RepublicDenmarkDjiboutiDominicaDominican RepublicEcuadorEgyptEl SalvadorEquatorial GuineaEritreaEstoniaEthiopiaFalkland Islands (Malvinas)Faroe IslandsFijiFinlandFranceFrench GuianaFrench PolynesiaFrench Southern TerritoriesGabonGambiaGeorgiaGermanyGhanaGibraltarGreeceGreenlandGrenadaGuadeloupeGuatemalaGuernseyGuineaGuinea-BissauGuyanaHaitiHeard Island and Mcdonald IslandsHoly See (Vatican City State)HondurasHong KongHungaryIcelandIndiaIndonesiaIran, Islamic Republic ofIraqIrelandIsle of ManIsraelItalyJamaicaJapanJerseyJordanKazakhstanKenyaKiribatiKorea, Democratic People’s Republic ofKorea, Republic ofKuwaitKyrgyzstanLao People’s Democratic RepublicLatviaLebanonLesothoLiberiaLibyan Arab JamahiriyaLiechtensteinLithuaniaLuxembourgMacaoMacedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic ofMadagascarMalawiMalaysiaMaldivesMaliMaltaMartiniqueMauritaniaMauritiusMayotteMexicoMoldova, Republic ofMonacoMongoliaMontenegroMontserratMoroccoMozambiqueMyanmarNamibiaNauruNepalNetherlandsNew CaledoniaNew ZealandNicaraguaNigerNigeriaNiueNorfolk IslandNorwayOmanPakistanPalestinianPanamaPapua New GuineaParaguayPeruPhilippinesPitcairnPolandPortugalQatarReunionRomaniaRussian FederationRWANDASaint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da CunhaSaint Kitts and NevisSaint LuciaSaint Martin (French part)Saint Pierre and MiquelonSaint Vincent and the GrenadinesSamoaSan MarinoSao Tome and PrincipeSaudi ArabiaSenegalSerbiaSeychellesSierra LeoneSingaporeSint Maarten (Dutch part)SlovakiaSloveniaSolomon IslandsSomaliaSouth AfricaSouth Georgia and the South Sandwich IslandsSouth SudanSpainSri LankaSudanSurinameSvalbard and Jan MayenSwazilandSwedenSwitzerlandSyrian Arab RepublicTaiwanTajikistanTanzania, United Republic ofThailandTimor-LesteTogoTokelauTongaTrinidad and TobagoTunisiaTurkeyTurkmenistanTurks and Caicos IslandsTuvaluUgandaUkraineUnited Arab EmiratesUnited KingdomUnited StatesUruguayUzbekistanVanuatuVenezuela, Bolivarian Republic ofVietnamVirgin Islands, BritishWallis and FutunaWestern SaharaYemenZambiaZimbabweI also wish to receive emails from AAAS/Science and Science advertisers, including information on products, services and special offers which may include but are not limited to news, careers information & upcoming events.Required fields are included by an asterisk(*)last_img read more

The Great Snake Boat Race of India

first_imgThe annual snake boat race in the southern Indian state of Kerala is a unique sporting spectacle because of its scale and popularity. Related Itemslast_img

The thermostat in your office may be sexist

first_imgIf you’re constantly bundling up against your office building’s air conditioning, blame Povl Ole Fanger. In the 1960s, this Danish scientist developed a model, still used in many office buildings around the world, which predicts comfortable indoor temperatures for the average worker. The problem? The average office worker in the 1960s was a 40-year-old man sporting a three-piece suit. But fear not, those for whom the “work sweater” has become a mandatory addition to office attire: Researchers say they have built a better model.The biggest problem with Fanger’s approach—which assumes a 21°C (70° Fahrenheit) office would be the most comfortable—is that it doesn’t take women into account. Men typically have faster metabolisms than women, and thus generate more heat. In addition, women tend to have much stronger vasoconstrictive reactions than men—when they get cold, their blood vessels close faster, and their sensitivity to temperature increases. Cue the work sweater.It’s not just women who suffer. “When I have to go to conference halls they’re often way too cold,” says Wouter van Marken Lichtenbelt, an ecological energeticist at Maastricht University in the Netherlands. “It feels like there’s a winter draft blowing. Even in warm temperatures I’ll take a sweater with me if I know I have to attend a meeting.”Sign up for our daily newsletterGet more great content like this delivered right to you!Country *AfghanistanAland IslandsAlbaniaAlgeriaAndorraAngolaAnguillaAntarcticaAntigua and BarbudaArgentinaArmeniaArubaAustraliaAustriaAzerbaijanBahamasBahrainBangladeshBarbadosBelarusBelgiumBelizeBeninBermudaBhutanBolivia, Plurinational State ofBonaire, Sint Eustatius and SabaBosnia and HerzegovinaBotswanaBouvet IslandBrazilBritish Indian Ocean TerritoryBrunei DarussalamBulgariaBurkina FasoBurundiCambodiaCameroonCanadaCape VerdeCayman IslandsCentral African RepublicChadChileChinaChristmas IslandCocos (Keeling) IslandsColombiaComorosCongoCongo, The Democratic Republic of theCook IslandsCosta RicaCote D’IvoireCroatiaCubaCuraçaoCyprusCzech RepublicDenmarkDjiboutiDominicaDominican RepublicEcuadorEgyptEl SalvadorEquatorial GuineaEritreaEstoniaEthiopiaFalkland Islands (Malvinas)Faroe IslandsFijiFinlandFranceFrench GuianaFrench PolynesiaFrench Southern TerritoriesGabonGambiaGeorgiaGermanyGhanaGibraltarGreeceGreenlandGrenadaGuadeloupeGuatemalaGuernseyGuineaGuinea-BissauGuyanaHaitiHeard Island and Mcdonald IslandsHoly See (Vatican City State)HondurasHong KongHungaryIcelandIndiaIndonesiaIran, Islamic Republic ofIraqIrelandIsle of ManIsraelItalyJamaicaJapanJerseyJordanKazakhstanKenyaKiribatiKorea, Democratic People’s Republic ofKorea, Republic ofKuwaitKyrgyzstanLao People’s Democratic RepublicLatviaLebanonLesothoLiberiaLibyan Arab JamahiriyaLiechtensteinLithuaniaLuxembourgMacaoMacedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic ofMadagascarMalawiMalaysiaMaldivesMaliMaltaMartiniqueMauritaniaMauritiusMayotteMexicoMoldova, Republic ofMonacoMongoliaMontenegroMontserratMoroccoMozambiqueMyanmarNamibiaNauruNepalNetherlandsNew CaledoniaNew ZealandNicaraguaNigerNigeriaNiueNorfolk IslandNorwayOmanPakistanPalestinianPanamaPapua New GuineaParaguayPeruPhilippinesPitcairnPolandPortugalQatarReunionRomaniaRussian FederationRWANDASaint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da CunhaSaint Kitts and NevisSaint LuciaSaint Martin (French part)Saint Pierre and MiquelonSaint Vincent and the GrenadinesSamoaSan MarinoSao Tome and PrincipeSaudi ArabiaSenegalSerbiaSeychellesSierra LeoneSingaporeSint Maarten (Dutch part)SlovakiaSloveniaSolomon IslandsSomaliaSouth AfricaSouth Georgia and the South Sandwich IslandsSouth SudanSpainSri LankaSudanSurinameSvalbard and Jan MayenSwazilandSwedenSwitzerlandSyrian Arab RepublicTaiwanTajikistanTanzania, United Republic ofThailandTimor-LesteTogoTokelauTongaTrinidad and TobagoTunisiaTurkeyTurkmenistanTurks and Caicos IslandsTuvaluUgandaUkraineUnited Arab EmiratesUnited KingdomUnited StatesUruguayUzbekistanVanuatuVenezuela, Bolivarian Republic ofVietnamVirgin Islands, BritishWallis and FutunaWestern SaharaYemenZambiaZimbabweI also wish to receive emails from AAAS/Science and Science advertisers, including information on products, services and special offers which may include but are not limited to news, careers information & upcoming events.Required fields are included by an asterisk(*)So in the new study, Lichtenbelt and Boris Kingma, a human biologist also at Maastricht, decided to update Fanger’s approach. They wanted a model that fosters a thermoneutral zone (not too hot, not too cold) for as many people as possible. That meant incorporating biophysical data on heat production in the body for both genders. They measured average skin temperatures and body temperatures of females in the office and adjusted the metabolic average in the biophysical model to represent a true average for a thermoneutral zone.The result: a model that suggests office temperatures should be set at a happy medium, about 24°C (75° Fahrenheit), the team reports online today in Nature Climate Change.  Lichtenbelt and Kingma say they hope their work will not only keep everyone comfortable, but also conserve energy in the process. According to the study, residential buildings and offices currently account for 30% of global carbon dioxide emissions.Still, not everyone is going to agree that 24°C is an optimal temperature, notes George Havenith, an environmental physiologist at Loughborough University in the United Kingdom who was not involved with the study. So he proposes a more low-tech solution, which he and his colleagues implement in their own office. “We usually cope by opening windows, or having a fan,” he says. “But mainly, we put on shorts.”last_img read more

Only 8% of the universe’s habitable worlds have formed so far

first_imgThere are likely hundreds of millions of Earth-like planets in the Milky Way today, but that’s a small fraction of the number that may form throughout the universe in the future, a new study suggests. Using data from the Hubble Space Telescope, researchers estimated the rates of past star and planet formation in the universe, which is now about 13.8 billion years old. They then combined that information with data from previous surveys that estimated the amounts of hydrogen and helium left over from the big bang that still haven’t collapsed to form stars. At the time our solar system formed about 4.6 billion years ago, only about 39% of the hydrogen and helium in our galaxy had collapsed into clouds that then evolved into stars, they say. That means that the remaining 61% is available to form future solar systems that may include Earth-like planets in their habitable zones, the researchers report online today in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. In the universe as a whole, the researchers suggest, only 8% of its original starmaking gases was locked up in stars by Earth’s first birthday. The rest will, over the remaining trillions of years of the universe’s lifetime, coalesce into stars whose solar systems will contain a myriad of Earth-like planets (artist’s representations above).last_img read more

Podcast: Giant whales, sperm in space, and Juno at Jupiter

first_imgCopyright Silverback Films/BBC. This week we have stories on strange dimming at a not-so-distant star, sending sperm to the International Space Station, and what the fossil record tells us about how baleen whales got so ginormous with Online News Editor David Grimm.Julia Rosen talks to Scott Bolton about surprises in the first data from the Juno mission, including what Jupiter’s poles look like and a peak under its outer cloud layers.Listen to previous podcasts. [Music: Jeffrey Cook]last_img

North Korea travel ban would hit Pyongyang University hard

first_img 2017 has been a tough year for North Korea’s Pyongyang University of Science and Technology (PUST). The university, founded by a Korean-American and one of the isolated nation’s top schools, was sucked into a political maelstrom this spring when the government arrested two Korean-Americans affiliated with the university. And now it’s facing a potentially devastating blow: The U.S. Department of State next week plans to impose a ban on travel by any U.S. passport holder to North Korea, effective next month. PUST President Yu-Taik Chon and some 40 PUST faculty and lecturers are U.S. citizens.State Department guidance notes that it is “establishing a process” for U.S. citizens to apply for a limited validity passport and “special validation” to travel to North Korea for “certain purposes,” including humanitarian work. In the meantime, it urges all U.S. citizens to depart North Korea and cancel any imminent travel.The ban could leave PUST administrators scrambling to find replacement faculty for the upcoming fall term. And it would compound the university’s woes. On 22 April, authorities detained Sang-duk “Tony” Kim, who had spent several weeks teaching accounting at PUST, over “criminal acts of hostility aimed to overturn” the North Korean government. Barely 2 weeks later, Hak-song Kim, who managed an experimental farm for PUST, was arrested; he was accused of unspecified “hostile acts.” A U.S. State Department envoy who visited the hostages last month, and a third Korean-American detainee not connected with PUST, found them to be in good health. According to sources, the PUST-affiliated detainees told the official that they are being held in isolation, individually, in a hotel and that their main daily activity is writing confessions to their alleged crimes. (The State Department notes that the detainees are exempted from the travel prohibition.) Sign up for our daily newsletterGet more great content like this delivered right to you!Country *AfghanistanAland IslandsAlbaniaAlgeriaAndorraAngolaAnguillaAntarcticaAntigua and BarbudaArgentinaArmeniaArubaAustraliaAustriaAzerbaijanBahamasBahrainBangladeshBarbadosBelarusBelgiumBelizeBeninBermudaBhutanBolivia, Plurinational State ofBonaire, Sint Eustatius and SabaBosnia and HerzegovinaBotswanaBouvet IslandBrazilBritish Indian Ocean TerritoryBrunei DarussalamBulgariaBurkina FasoBurundiCambodiaCameroonCanadaCape VerdeCayman IslandsCentral African RepublicChadChileChinaChristmas IslandCocos (Keeling) IslandsColombiaComorosCongoCongo, The Democratic Republic of theCook IslandsCosta RicaCote D’IvoireCroatiaCubaCuraçaoCyprusCzech RepublicDenmarkDjiboutiDominicaDominican RepublicEcuadorEgyptEl SalvadorEquatorial GuineaEritreaEstoniaEthiopiaFalkland Islands (Malvinas)Faroe IslandsFijiFinlandFranceFrench GuianaFrench PolynesiaFrench Southern TerritoriesGabonGambiaGeorgiaGermanyGhanaGibraltarGreeceGreenlandGrenadaGuadeloupeGuatemalaGuernseyGuineaGuinea-BissauGuyanaHaitiHeard Island and Mcdonald IslandsHoly See (Vatican City State)HondurasHong KongHungaryIcelandIndiaIndonesiaIran, Islamic Republic ofIraqIrelandIsle of ManIsraelItalyJamaicaJapanJerseyJordanKazakhstanKenyaKiribatiKorea, Democratic People’s Republic ofKorea, Republic ofKuwaitKyrgyzstanLao People’s Democratic RepublicLatviaLebanonLesothoLiberiaLibyan Arab JamahiriyaLiechtensteinLithuaniaLuxembourgMacaoMacedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic ofMadagascarMalawiMalaysiaMaldivesMaliMaltaMartiniqueMauritaniaMauritiusMayotteMexicoMoldova, Republic ofMonacoMongoliaMontenegroMontserratMoroccoMozambiqueMyanmarNamibiaNauruNepalNetherlandsNew CaledoniaNew ZealandNicaraguaNigerNigeriaNiueNorfolk IslandNorwayOmanPakistanPalestinianPanamaPapua New GuineaParaguayPeruPhilippinesPitcairnPolandPortugalQatarReunionRomaniaRussian FederationRWANDASaint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da CunhaSaint Kitts and NevisSaint LuciaSaint Martin (French part)Saint Pierre and MiquelonSaint Vincent and the GrenadinesSamoaSan MarinoSao Tome and PrincipeSaudi ArabiaSenegalSerbiaSeychellesSierra LeoneSingaporeSint Maarten (Dutch part)SlovakiaSloveniaSolomon IslandsSomaliaSouth AfricaSouth Georgia and the South Sandwich IslandsSouth SudanSpainSri LankaSudanSurinameSvalbard and Jan MayenSwazilandSwedenSwitzerlandSyrian Arab RepublicTaiwanTajikistanTanzania, United Republic ofThailandTimor-LesteTogoTokelauTongaTrinidad and TobagoTunisiaTurkeyTurkmenistanTurks and Caicos IslandsTuvaluUgandaUkraineUnited Arab EmiratesUnited KingdomUnited StatesUruguayUzbekistanVanuatuVenezuela, Bolivarian Republic ofVietnamVirgin Islands, BritishWallis and FutunaWestern SaharaYemenZambiaZimbabweI also wish to receive emails from AAAS/Science and Science advertisers, including information on products, services and special offers which may include but are not limited to news, careers information & upcoming events.Required fields are included by an asterisk(*) Emily Petersen North Korea travel ban would hit Pyongyang University hard By Richard StoneJul. 21, 2017 , 2:00 PMcenter_img Chan-Mo Park PUST officials have stressed that neither of the Kims has yet been charged with a crime and that the allegations are unrelated to their work at the university, located on the southern edge of Pyongyang. Still, the back-to-back arrests have cast an uncomfortable spotlight on PUST. And the university’s operations could grow more complicated as the United States and other countries mull additional sanctions on North Korea over its test of an intercontinental ballistic missile earlier this month.Since PUST took in its first 50 students in 2010, the student body has steadily grown; enrollment now stands at 450 undergraduates and 90 graduate students. And PUST plans to open a medical school, now under construction, at the end of this year. Though many observers have praised the university as a bold experiment in academic diplomacy, it has its detractors. Critics have asserted, for instance, that the university’s computer science courses train future North Korean hackers and cyberwarriors. PUST Chancellor Chan-Mo Park, 82, a computer scientist and former president of South Korea’s Pohang University of Science and Technology, rejects that charge. A South Korea–born U.S. citizen and, like the rest of PUST’s foreign faculty, a devout Christian, Park sat down with ScienceInsider to discuss recent developments. This interview has been edited for brevity and clarity.Q: If U.S. citizens are barred from travel to North Korea to teach at PUST, how would that affect your university?A: That would be very bad news. We would have to find faculty from other countries. North Korean professors could teach some courses, but only a few of them teach in English, and we have been advocating that all PUST courses must be taught in English. So this would definitely damage the current program. It’s really discouraging to me.Q: What efforts has PUST undertaken on the behalf of Tony Kim and Hak-song Kim?A: Since their arrests were not related to their work with PUST, professors and staff members could not do anything—except pray hard.Q: How has their detainment affected the perception of the university outside North Korea?A: Many people, especially our families and supporters, were very surprised and worried about the security of U.S. citizens at PUST. Nevertheless, it is my understanding that most of the summer school teachers [from the United States] are now on campus.Q: Have sanctions imposed on North Korea harmed PUST? A: Due to [United Nations] sanctions, since early last year it became hard to send money to China to buy research equipment and materials [for PUST]. Sanctions imposed by South Korea prohibit South Korean nationals from visiting North Korea, so scholars from the South cannot come to PUST to teach. And some countries—for example, Germany and Italy—did not give visas to PUST students who were admitted to graduate school at universities such as Göttingen, Sannio, and Brescia.Q: What assurances can you give that PUST graduates do not end up working for cyberterrorism units or in other branches of the North Korean military?A: I can assure you that PUST does not help train hackers and “cyberwarriors” at all. Recently, Thae Yong-ho, a former councilor in North Korea’s embassy in the U.K. who defected to South Korea, told reporters at South Korea’s National Assembly that he did not think PUST was teaching hacking. He added that in North Korea, they teach hacking to selected middle school students who show talent with computers. Most of our graduates go into the academic sector as instructors or researchers. Some go on for graduate study in foreign universities or get jobs in North Korean companies in foreign countries like China and Malaysia. Misunderstanding and groundless accusations hurt the progress of PUST.last_img read more

An Iranian researcher went home to serve his country. Now, ‘I realize that I’m lucky I’m not in prison.’

first_img By Richard StoneMay. 24, 2018 , 6:20 PM Kaveh Madani Madani, too, came in the crosshairs. He was detained briefly in February after Seyed-Emami’s death but released after an outcry from the public, Iranian reformists, and international media. Hardliners interrogated him several times during his brief stint as a public servant, he says, and accused him of spying for MI6, Mossad, and the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency. He sought to counter that narrative through his work in the department and through social media.But the pressure mounted. In March, photos of him dancing at an awards ceremony during the American Geophysical Union’s annual meeting in California in 2013 were released by hardliners. Opponents argued that a person who dances does not qualify as a top official of an Islamic state.With the threats against him escalating, Madani last month resigned his post while on his way back to Tehran from a work trip to Bangkok. He has since been residing at an undisclosed location outside Iran.He spoke with Science about his rollercoaster government tenure and his hopes for having created room for future returning expatriate scientists to maneuver in Iran when political tensions ease. This transcript was edited for clarity and brevity.Q: Why did you return to Iran?A: It was a once-in-a-lifetime opportunity to serve at one of the highest possible levels a scientist can serve. I thought if I succeed, there would be more trust in scientists and more trust in people of my generation. And to inspire other Iranians outside to go back and help. I went back with the hope of creating hope.Q: As tensions inside Iran rose in January, did you have any foreboding of what might happen?A: Remember, I was interrogated after arriving in Tehran. Before that, I never thought the hardliners would get so nervous about environmental activism, like trying to save cheetahs.Q: Yet you felt it was a manageable level of pressure—at least in the beginning.A: Many people thought that as a scientist from abroad, I would be lost trying to navigate the bureaucratic system. But at the Department of Environment, we were functioning really well. I was in charge of international relations, outreach and education. I’m proud of creating a culture of teamwork in my section. We managed to grab people’s attention on waste [of all kinds] through a national campaign.Q: Is there a water crisis in Iran now?A: We’re past the crisis stage. It’s a water bankruptcy. Our demand and consumption are way higher than the available water.I had planned to focus on water in the summer. In the meantime, we were doing a lot. I became vice president of the [United Nations] Environmental Assembly, and we helped [the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific] launch a new initiative on dust storms.Q: Was there a turning point when the activists were arrested?A: This is the thing. We have 850 registered environmental NGOs [nongovernmental organizations] in Iran. What is their impact? Nobody had that answer. There are a lot of problems the government can deny. But the government cannot deny the air pollution in Tehran, or the dust storms in Khuzestan [in southwest Iran], or the deterioration of Lake Urmia. So, you better let people speak about them. And that’s what has happened. Speaking out about the environment became a sort of safe space.I just hope that on environmental matters, whether it is scientists or activists, people should spend more time on public awareness and sharing data. Once we’re all on the same level of understanding, it’s harder to sell conspiracy theories. The story from the hardliners about me is that [I] was trying to paint a dark picture of Iran’s water sources to justify shutting down the agricultural sector and import [genetically modified organisms]. For that reason, they called me a bioterrorist. I said, “You’re misinterpreting scientific facts.” I knew my science—and was using science as my weapon.I blame some of my friends, prominent scientists, for staying quiet on issues related to Iran’s environment. When there’s one entity building a wrong narrative and selling it to people, it’s really hard to counter that if no one is speaking up.Q: Was it a difficult decision to quit? What was the tipping point?A: I was under pressure for over 6 months, as they tried to prove I was a spy. They had copies of my Facebook account, all my emails. I never claimed to be a different person. I shave, I look differently, I speak differently. But I knew I wasn’t a spy. Getting rid of me, discrediting me, was their main goal.Q: What message were they trying to send by discrediting you?A: Look, hardliners are the same all over the world. In the U.S., when I was at University of Central Florida, I was told by [a U.S.] export control officer there that I cannot be a co-author of a paper with Iranian co-authors [because of how U.S. regulations were then being interpreted]. Some of the questions I was getting during my interrogation in Tehran were the same as what I get at the borders of some countries in the West. Hardliners and radicals don’t like a peaceful environment because conflict is essential to their survival, no matter where they are. I think I was more of a threat because I was breaking down borders. Trying to solve things with a scientific approach, trying to be inclusive. Targeting me was a miscalculation on their part.Q: If they make an example of you, they can make an example of anybody.A: OK, the hardliners won their battle against me. But they lost the bigger war with the people of Iran. If anything, they made me more popular. People could tell who’s really guilty, and who cares about their country. I pushed some boundaries, and hopefully created more space for someone who follows after me. And hopefully the government will think carefully how to protect them.In some ways, my time in Tehran was the best sabbatical one academic could wish for. This was a wonderful learning experience. On the other hand, I realize that I’m lucky I’m not in prison, or dead. Kaveh Madanicenter_img When Kaveh Madani returned to Iran last September to serve as his country’s deputy vice president for the environment, political hardliners didn’t exactly lay out a welcome mat. Upon his arrival in Tehran, the water management expert was detained and interrogated, and several years’ worth of his photos and emails were confiscated.Eventually, things settled down and Madani, 36, a specialist on Iran’s dwindling water resources, started to raise his profile inside the country. Prior to his homecoming, he had been a faculty member at Imperial College London and spent 14 years overseas, including 3 years at the University of Central Florida in Orlando.But domestic politics in Iran took a sinister turn this past January. That month, in the wake of nationwide protests over the sputtering economy, security officers arrested seven environmental activists. The public prosecutor accused them of spying, alleging, among other things, that camera traps for monitoring rare Asiatic cheetahs and other wildlife were intended to eavesdrop on the nation’s ballistic missile program. In February, one detainee, Kavous Seyed-Emami, co-founder of the Persian Wildlife Heritage Foundation in Tehran, died in mysterious circumstances in Tehran’s Evin Prison. Authorities claim he committed suicide.Sign up for our daily newsletterGet more great content like this delivered right to you!Country *AfghanistanAland IslandsAlbaniaAlgeriaAndorraAngolaAnguillaAntarcticaAntigua and BarbudaArgentinaArmeniaArubaAustraliaAustriaAzerbaijanBahamasBahrainBangladeshBarbadosBelarusBelgiumBelizeBeninBermudaBhutanBolivia, Plurinational State ofBonaire, Sint Eustatius and SabaBosnia and HerzegovinaBotswanaBouvet IslandBrazilBritish Indian Ocean TerritoryBrunei DarussalamBulgariaBurkina FasoBurundiCambodiaCameroonCanadaCape VerdeCayman IslandsCentral African RepublicChadChileChinaChristmas IslandCocos (Keeling) IslandsColombiaComorosCongoCongo, The Democratic Republic of theCook IslandsCosta RicaCote D’IvoireCroatiaCubaCuraçaoCyprusCzech RepublicDenmarkDjiboutiDominicaDominican RepublicEcuadorEgyptEl SalvadorEquatorial GuineaEritreaEstoniaEthiopiaFalkland Islands (Malvinas)Faroe IslandsFijiFinlandFranceFrench GuianaFrench PolynesiaFrench Southern TerritoriesGabonGambiaGeorgiaGermanyGhanaGibraltarGreeceGreenlandGrenadaGuadeloupeGuatemalaGuernseyGuineaGuinea-BissauGuyanaHaitiHeard Island and Mcdonald IslandsHoly See (Vatican City State)HondurasHong KongHungaryIcelandIndiaIndonesiaIran, Islamic Republic ofIraqIrelandIsle of ManIsraelItalyJamaicaJapanJerseyJordanKazakhstanKenyaKiribatiKorea, Democratic People’s Republic ofKorea, Republic ofKuwaitKyrgyzstanLao People’s Democratic RepublicLatviaLebanonLesothoLiberiaLibyan Arab JamahiriyaLiechtensteinLithuaniaLuxembourgMacaoMacedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic ofMadagascarMalawiMalaysiaMaldivesMaliMaltaMartiniqueMauritaniaMauritiusMayotteMexicoMoldova, Republic ofMonacoMongoliaMontenegroMontserratMoroccoMozambiqueMyanmarNamibiaNauruNepalNetherlandsNew CaledoniaNew ZealandNicaraguaNigerNigeriaNiueNorfolk IslandNorwayOmanPakistanPalestinianPanamaPapua New GuineaParaguayPeruPhilippinesPitcairnPolandPortugalQatarReunionRomaniaRussian FederationRWANDASaint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da CunhaSaint Kitts and NevisSaint LuciaSaint Martin (French part)Saint Pierre and MiquelonSaint Vincent and the GrenadinesSamoaSan MarinoSao Tome and PrincipeSaudi ArabiaSenegalSerbiaSeychellesSierra LeoneSingaporeSint Maarten (Dutch part)SlovakiaSloveniaSolomon IslandsSomaliaSouth AfricaSouth Georgia and the South Sandwich IslandsSouth SudanSpainSri LankaSudanSurinameSvalbard and Jan MayenSwazilandSwedenSwitzerlandSyrian Arab RepublicTaiwanTajikistanTanzania, United Republic ofThailandTimor-LesteTogoTokelauTongaTrinidad and TobagoTunisiaTurkeyTurkmenistanTurks and Caicos IslandsTuvaluUgandaUkraineUnited Arab EmiratesUnited KingdomUnited StatesUruguayUzbekistanVanuatuVenezuela, Bolivarian Republic ofVietnamVirgin Islands, BritishWallis and FutunaWestern SaharaYemenZambiaZimbabweI also wish to receive emails from AAAS/Science and Science advertisers, including information on products, services and special offers which may include but are not limited to news, careers information & upcoming events.Required fields are included by an asterisk(*) An Iranian researcher went home to serve his country. Now, ‘I realize that I’m lucky I’m not in prison.’last_img read more

The ‘Iceman’s’ last meal was a high-fat feast

first_imgSOUTH TYROL ARCHAEOLOGY MUSEUM/EURAC/M. SAMADELLI The ‘Iceman’s’ last meal was a high-fat feast By Lizzie WadeJul. 12, 2018 , 11:00 AMcenter_img In 1991, hikers in the Italian Alps stumbled upon a dead body. But this was no typical John Doe case: The man had been dead for about 5300 years, frozen and perfectly preserved by a mountain glacier that had started to melt. Known as Ötzi, or the Iceman, he has become one of the most famous and well-studied natural mummies in the world. Now, researchers have provided a detailed chemical analysis of his last meal and found it was rich in fat. As described in previous accounts, Ötzi had a completely full stomach when he was shot with an arrow and died. In the new study scientists quantified the ancient DNA, proteins, and other chemicals preserved in his stomach contents. Fat residues, which DNA indicates came from red deer and ibex, made up about 50% of the total undigested food in his stomach, the team writes today in Current Biology.Although one meal doesn’t reveal a lifetime’s diet, a high-fat diet may have given Ötzi the energy he needed to survive at high altitudes. The Iceman’s last meal was balanced with grains from einkorn wheat and traces of a genus of toxic ferns called bracken. Researchers say he may have consumed the bracken as medicine to treat parasites previously identified in his intestines—or he may have simply used the fern to wrap his other food and ingested its toxic spores unintentionally.Sign up for our daily newsletterGet more great content like this delivered right to you!Country *AfghanistanAland IslandsAlbaniaAlgeriaAndorraAngolaAnguillaAntarcticaAntigua and BarbudaArgentinaArmeniaArubaAustraliaAustriaAzerbaijanBahamasBahrainBangladeshBarbadosBelarusBelgiumBelizeBeninBermudaBhutanBolivia, Plurinational State ofBonaire, Sint Eustatius and SabaBosnia and HerzegovinaBotswanaBouvet IslandBrazilBritish Indian Ocean TerritoryBrunei DarussalamBulgariaBurkina FasoBurundiCambodiaCameroonCanadaCape VerdeCayman IslandsCentral African RepublicChadChileChinaChristmas IslandCocos (Keeling) IslandsColombiaComorosCongoCongo, The Democratic Republic of theCook IslandsCosta RicaCote D’IvoireCroatiaCubaCuraçaoCyprusCzech RepublicDenmarkDjiboutiDominicaDominican RepublicEcuadorEgyptEl SalvadorEquatorial GuineaEritreaEstoniaEthiopiaFalkland Islands (Malvinas)Faroe IslandsFijiFinlandFranceFrench GuianaFrench PolynesiaFrench Southern TerritoriesGabonGambiaGeorgiaGermanyGhanaGibraltarGreeceGreenlandGrenadaGuadeloupeGuatemalaGuernseyGuineaGuinea-BissauGuyanaHaitiHeard Island and Mcdonald IslandsHoly See (Vatican City State)HondurasHong KongHungaryIcelandIndiaIndonesiaIran, Islamic Republic ofIraqIrelandIsle of ManIsraelItalyJamaicaJapanJerseyJordanKazakhstanKenyaKiribatiKorea, Democratic People’s Republic ofKorea, Republic ofKuwaitKyrgyzstanLao People’s Democratic RepublicLatviaLebanonLesothoLiberiaLibyan Arab JamahiriyaLiechtensteinLithuaniaLuxembourgMacaoMacedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic ofMadagascarMalawiMalaysiaMaldivesMaliMaltaMartiniqueMauritaniaMauritiusMayotteMexicoMoldova, Republic ofMonacoMongoliaMontenegroMontserratMoroccoMozambiqueMyanmarNamibiaNauruNepalNetherlandsNew CaledoniaNew ZealandNicaraguaNigerNigeriaNiueNorfolk IslandNorwayOmanPakistanPalestinianPanamaPapua New GuineaParaguayPeruPhilippinesPitcairnPolandPortugalQatarReunionRomaniaRussian FederationRWANDASaint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da CunhaSaint Kitts and NevisSaint LuciaSaint Martin (French part)Saint Pierre and MiquelonSaint Vincent and the GrenadinesSamoaSan MarinoSao Tome and PrincipeSaudi ArabiaSenegalSerbiaSeychellesSierra LeoneSingaporeSint Maarten (Dutch part)SlovakiaSloveniaSolomon IslandsSomaliaSouth AfricaSouth Georgia and the South Sandwich IslandsSouth SudanSpainSri LankaSudanSurinameSvalbard and Jan MayenSwazilandSwedenSwitzerlandSyrian Arab RepublicTaiwanTajikistanTanzania, United Republic ofThailandTimor-LesteTogoTokelauTongaTrinidad and TobagoTunisiaTurkeyTurkmenistanTurks and Caicos IslandsTuvaluUgandaUkraineUnited Arab EmiratesUnited KingdomUnited StatesUruguayUzbekistanVanuatuVenezuela, Bolivarian Republic ofVietnamVirgin Islands, BritishWallis and FutunaWestern SaharaYemenZambiaZimbabweI also wish to receive emails from AAAS/Science and Science advertisers, including information on products, services and special offers which may include but are not limited to news, careers information & upcoming events.Required fields are included by an asterisk(*)last_img read more

Hindu nationalists claim that ancient Indians had airplanes, stem cell technology, and the internet

first_img Hindu nationalists claim that ancient Indians had airplanes, stem cell technology, and the internet ANINDITO MUKHERJEE/BLOOMBERG VIA GETTY IMAGES By Sanjay KumarFeb. 13, 2019 , 10:55 AM The Indian government in 2017 decided to fund research to validate claims that panchagavya, a mixture that includes cow urine and dung, has therapeutic value. New Delhi—The most widely discussed talk at the Indian Science Congress, a government-funded annual jamboree held in Jalandhar in January, wasn’t about space exploration or information technology, areas in which India has made rapid progress. Instead, the talk celebrated a story in the Hindu epic Mahabharata about a woman who gave birth to 100 children, citing it as evidence that India’s ancient Hindu civilization had developed advanced reproductive technologies. Just as surprising as the claim was the distinguished pedigree of the scientist who made it: chemist G. Nageshwar Rao, vice-chancellor of Andhra University in Visakhapatnam. “Stem cell research was done in this country thousands of years ago,” Rao said.His talk was widely met with ridicule. But Rao is hardly the only Indian scientist to make such claims. In recent years, “experts” have said ancient Indians had spacecraft, the internet, and nuclear weapons—long before Western science came on the scene.Such claims and other forms of pseudoscience rooted in Hindu nationalism have been on the rise since Prime Minister Narendra Modi came to power in 2014. They’re not just an embarrassment, some researchers say, but a threat to science and education that stifles critical thinking and could hamper India’s development. “Modi has initiated what may be called ‘Project Assault on Scientific Rationality,’” says Gauhar Raza, former chief scientist at the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) here, a conglomerate of almost 40 national labs. “A religio-mythical culture is being propagated in the country’s scientific institutions aggressively.”Sign up for our daily newsletterGet more great content like this delivered right to you!Country *AfghanistanAland IslandsAlbaniaAlgeriaAndorraAngolaAnguillaAntarcticaAntigua and BarbudaArgentinaArmeniaArubaAustraliaAustriaAzerbaijanBahamasBahrainBangladeshBarbadosBelarusBelgiumBelizeBeninBermudaBhutanBolivia, Plurinational State ofBonaire, Sint Eustatius and SabaBosnia and HerzegovinaBotswanaBouvet IslandBrazilBritish Indian Ocean TerritoryBrunei DarussalamBulgariaBurkina FasoBurundiCambodiaCameroonCanadaCape VerdeCayman IslandsCentral African RepublicChadChileChinaChristmas IslandCocos (Keeling) IslandsColombiaComorosCongoCongo, The Democratic Republic of theCook IslandsCosta RicaCote D’IvoireCroatiaCubaCuraçaoCyprusCzech RepublicDenmarkDjiboutiDominicaDominican RepublicEcuadorEgyptEl SalvadorEquatorial GuineaEritreaEstoniaEthiopiaFalkland Islands (Malvinas)Faroe IslandsFijiFinlandFranceFrench GuianaFrench PolynesiaFrench Southern TerritoriesGabonGambiaGeorgiaGermanyGhanaGibraltarGreeceGreenlandGrenadaGuadeloupeGuatemalaGuernseyGuineaGuinea-BissauGuyanaHaitiHeard Island and Mcdonald IslandsHoly See (Vatican City State)HondurasHong KongHungaryIcelandIndiaIndonesiaIran, Islamic Republic ofIraqIrelandIsle of ManIsraelItalyJamaicaJapanJerseyJordanKazakhstanKenyaKiribatiKorea, Democratic People’s Republic ofKorea, Republic ofKuwaitKyrgyzstanLao People’s Democratic RepublicLatviaLebanonLesothoLiberiaLibyan Arab JamahiriyaLiechtensteinLithuaniaLuxembourgMacaoMacedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic ofMadagascarMalawiMalaysiaMaldivesMaliMaltaMartiniqueMauritaniaMauritiusMayotteMexicoMoldova, Republic ofMonacoMongoliaMontenegroMontserratMoroccoMozambiqueMyanmarNamibiaNauruNepalNetherlandsNew CaledoniaNew ZealandNicaraguaNigerNigeriaNiueNorfolk IslandNorwayOmanPakistanPalestinianPanamaPapua New GuineaParaguayPeruPhilippinesPitcairnPolandPortugalQatarReunionRomaniaRussian FederationRWANDASaint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da CunhaSaint Kitts and NevisSaint LuciaSaint Martin (French part)Saint Pierre and MiquelonSaint Vincent and the GrenadinesSamoaSan MarinoSao Tome and PrincipeSaudi ArabiaSenegalSerbiaSeychellesSierra LeoneSingaporeSint Maarten (Dutch part)SlovakiaSloveniaSolomon IslandsSomaliaSouth AfricaSouth Georgia and the South Sandwich IslandsSouth SudanSpainSri LankaSudanSurinameSvalbard and Jan MayenSwazilandSwedenSwitzerlandSyrian Arab RepublicTaiwanTajikistanTanzania, United Republic ofThailandTimor-LesteTogoTokelauTongaTrinidad and TobagoTunisiaTurkeyTurkmenistanTurks and Caicos IslandsTuvaluUgandaUkraineUnited Arab EmiratesUnited KingdomUnited StatesUruguayUzbekistanVanuatuVenezuela, Bolivarian Republic ofVietnamVirgin Islands, BritishWallis and FutunaWestern SaharaYemenZambiaZimbabweI also wish to receive emails from AAAS/Science and Science advertisers, including information on products, services and special offers which may include but are not limited to news, careers information & upcoming events.Required fields are included by an asterisk(*)Some blame the rapid rise at least in part on Vijnana Bharati (VIBHA), the science wing of Rashtriya Swayamsewak Sangh (RSS), a massive conservative movement that aims to turn India into a Hindu nation and is the ideological parent of Modi’s Bharatiya Janata Party. VIBHA aims to educate the masses about science and technology and harness research to stimulate India’s development, but it also promotes “Swadeshi” (indigenous) science and tries to connect modern science to traditional knowledge and Hindu spirituality.VIBHA receives generous government funding and is active in 23 of India’s 29 states, organizing huge science fairs and other events; it has 20,000 so-called “team members” to spread its ideas and 100,000 volunteers—including many in the highest echelons of Indian science.VIBHA’s advisory board includes Vijay Kumar Saraswat, former head of Indian defense research and now chancellor of Jawaharlal Nehru University here. The former chairs of India’s Space Commission and its Atomic Energy Commission are VIBHA “patrons.” Structural biologist Shekhar Mande, director-general of CSIR, is VIBHA’s vice president.Saraswat—who says he firmly believes in the power of gemstones to influence wellbeing and destiny—is proud of the achievements of ancient Hindu science: “We should rediscover Indian systems which existed thousands of years back,” he says. Mande shares that pride. “We are a race which is not inferior to any other race in the world,” he says. “Great things have happened in this part of the world.” Mande insists that VIBHA is not antiscientific, however: “We want to tell people you have to be rational in your life and not believe in irrational myths.” He does not see a rise of pseudoscience in the past 4 years—”We have always had that”—and says part of the problem is that the press is now paying more attention to the occasional bizarre claim. “If journalists don’t report it, actually that would be perfect,” he says.But others say there is little doubt that pseudoscience is on the rise—even at the highest levels of government. Modi, who was an RSS pracharak, or propagandist, for 12 years, claimed in 2014 that the transplantation of the elephant head of the god Ganesha to a human—a tale told in ancient epics—was a great achievement of Indian surgery millennia ago, and has made claims about stem cells similar to Rao’s. At last year’s Indian Science Congress, science minister Harsh Vardhan, a medical doctor and RSS member, said, incorrectly, that physicist Stephen Hawking had stated that the Vedas include theories superior to Albert Einstein’s equation E=mc2. “It’s one thing for a crackpot to say something like that, but it’s a very bad example for people in authority to do so. It is deplorable,” Venki Ramakrishnan, the Indian-born president of the Royal Society in London and a 2009 Nobel laureate in chemistry, tells Science. (Vardhan has declined to explain his statement so far and did not respond to an interview request from Science.)Critics say pseudoscience is creeping into science funding and education. In 2017, Vardhan decided to fund research at the prestigious Indian Institute of Technology here to validate claims that panchagavya, a concoction that includes cow urine and dung, is a remedy for a wide array of ailments—a notion many scientists dismiss. And in January 2018, higher education minister Satya Pal Singh dismissed Charles Darwin’s evolution theory and threatened to remove it from school and college curricula. “Nobody, including our ancestors, in written or oral [texts], has said that they ever saw an ape turning into a human being,” Singh said.Those remarks triggered a storm of protest; in a rare display of unity, India’s three premier science academies said removing evolution from school curricula, or diluting it with “non-scientific explanations or myths,” would be “a retrograde step.” In other instances, too, scientists are pushing back against the growing tide of pseudoscience. But doing so can be dangerous. In the past 5 years, four prominent fighters against superstition and pseudoscientific ideas and practices have been murdered, including Narendra Dabholkar, a physician, and M. M. Kalburgi, former vice-chancellor of Kannada University in Hampi. Ongoing police investigations have linked their killers to Hindu fundamentalist organizations.Some Indian scientists may be susceptible to nonscientific beliefs because they view science as a 9-to-5 job, says Ashok Sahni, a renowned paleontologist and emeritus professor at Panjab University in Chandigarh. “Their religious beliefs don’t dovetail with science,” he says, and outside working hours those beliefs may hold sway. A tradition of deference to teachers and older persons may also play a role, he adds. “Freedom to question authority, to question writings, that’s [an] intrinsic part of science,” Ramakrishnan adds. Rather than focusing on the past, India should focus on its scientific future, he says—and drastically hike its research funding.The grip of Hindu nationalism on Indian society is about to be tested. Two dozen opposition parties have joined forces against Modi for elections that will be held before the end of May. A loss by Modi would bring “some change,” says Prabir Purkayastha, vice president of the All India People’s Science Network in Madurai, a liberal science advocacy movement with some 400,000 members across the country that opposes VIBHA’s ideology. But the tide of pseudoscience may not retreat quickly, he says. “I don’t think this battle is going to die down soon, because institutions have been weakened and infected.”last_img read more

‘Zlatan can be Napoli driving force’

first_img Watch Serie A live in the UK on Premier Sports for just £11.99 per month including live LaLiga, Eredivisie, Scottish Cup Football and more. Visit: https://subscribe.premiersports.tv/ Zlatan Ibrahimovic can be a “driving force” in Napoli’s squad, according to President Aurelio De Laurentiis. Napoli appear to be working on a deal to sign Ibrahimovic in January, with his LA Galaxy contract about to expire, and De Laurentiis reiterated his praise for the veteran striker. “Ibrahimovic is a beautiful person, regardless of my Napoli team,” he told ESPN. “He can still do a lot and he can be a driving force for the team. I’m convinced that any Coach would love to have him at their disposal. “Maybe even as a kind of reference point. He could be one for any team.” Hirving Lozano, on the other hand, has just one goal from his first eight appearances for the Partenopei, despite being their record buy… “Lozano’s looked good. You need to be patient with new players who haven’t played in Italian football before “He must settle in a different city, with a new Coach and teammates. Lozano’s a great player, he showed it against Salzburg. “As soon as he came on against Juve, he scored a goal. You can’t have everything right away and you can’t expect these players to fix problems right away. “It’s necessary to give them time and also the Coach, who must find their best position. “In the last 18 months, we’ve bought 13 players so it’s normal that it takes time for everyone to adapt and perform at their best. “We shouldn’t think too boldly as to where we’ll end up, only the next game. We have a game that seems easy, against SPAL, but it’ll be a game to be taken with a grain of salt. “We’ll have to be very focused. We can’t think of where we’ll be on May 24, my birthday: we’ll be playing against Lazio.”last_img read more

Line-ups: Bologna v Inter

first_img Watch Serie A live in the UK on Premier Sports for just £11.99 per month including live LaLiga, Eredivisie, Scottish Cup Football and more. Visit: https://subscribe.premiersports.tv/ Inter will try again to recapture the top spot with Romelu Lukaku and Lautaro Martinez leading the way against Rodrigo Palacio’s Bologna. It kicks off at the Stadio Dall’Ara at 17.00 GMT. You can follow all the build-up and action from this game, Roma-Napoli and Torino-Juventus on the LIVEBLOG. The Nerazzurri can at least temporarily take the leadership with a victory at the Dall’Ara, but fatigue is beginning to set in amid the injury crisis, which continues to rule out Alexis Sanchez, Danilo D’Ambrosio and now also Kwadwo Asamoah. Stefano Sensi returns, but is only fit for a spot on the bench, so Roberto Gagliardini is again pulling the midfield reins. Valentino Lazaro has been something of a mystery since arriving over the summer for €22.5m, as he’s had only two substitute appearances in all competition. In order to rest Antonio Candreva, the 23-year-old Austria international is given his first start in an Inter jersey on the right wing. There’s no rest for Lukaku and Lautaro Martinez, as they are again the front two, with Matteo Politano and Sebastiano Esposito the only alternatives. Bologna have struggled lately with only one win in the last six games, as coach Sinisa Mihajlovic’s absence for his third course of chemotherapy is starting to take its toll. Mattia Destro, Takehiro Tomiyasu and Mitchell Dijks are still injured, but former Inter midfielder Gary Medel is back for a spot on the bench after several weeks out of action. Another ex-Nerazzurri star takes the centre-forward role, as Palacio is on sparkling form at the age of 37. He has support from Riccardo Orsolini, Roberto Soriano and Nicola Sansone. Inter are unbeaten at the Stadio Dall’Ara since February 2002, emerging with 11 Serie A wins and three draws. Bologna: Skorupski; Mbaye, Danilo, Bani, Krejci; Poli, Svanberg; Orsolini, Soriano, Sansone; Palacio Bologna bench: Da Costa, Sarr, Denswil, Medel, Paz, Santander, Skov Olsen, Corbo, Juwara, Cangiano, Schouten, Dzemaili Inter: Handanovic; Skriniar, De Vrij, Bastoni; Lazaro, Gagliardini, Brozovic, Barella, Biraghi; R Lukaku, Lautaro Martinez Inter bench: Padelli, Berni, Godin, Vecino, Ranocchia, Sensi, Politano, Borja Valero, Dimarco, Esposito, Candreva Ref: La Pennalast_img read more

Totti: ‘Lippi like no other’

first_img Watch Serie A live in the UK on Premier Sports for just £11.99 per month including live LaLiga, Eredivisie, Scottish Cup Football and more. Visit: https://subscribe.premiersports.tv/ Francesco Totti reveals how he had “a rapport with Marcello Lippi that I never had with any other coach” but warns Nicolo Zaniolo must be left alone. The pair only worked together for two years in the Italy set-up, but the Roma icon admits the former Juventus boss left a lasting impact on him. Totti suffered a broken leg before the 2006 World Cup but was nonetheless part of Lippi’s squad that won the tournament. “My memories of him are all positive, as well as meeting a great coach I met a spectacular man, a father,” he told Radio Radio. “After the injury, he said some things to me to get my head right, and something clicked into gear. “The words he said to me at Coverciano… there was a rapport there with him that I never had with any other coach. It went beyond football. Both men had different club allegiances, so how did they put them aside for the Azzurri? “Simple, we were in the national team and we only thought about that. Club sides were not thought of. “The solidarity was our strength, and the only goal was to bring Italy as far as possible. “The desire we showed brought us to the top of the world. In the end we were a single club; an Italian one.” Zaniolo has been mentioned as a potential successor to Totti in the Eternal City, so should he inherit the No 10 jersey? “I, for the sake of Zaniolo, would stop the comparisons. If he continues like this, and I hope he does, he will deserve all that football will give him. “We have to let him grow. He understands the Roman mentality and I hope he stays in Rome for a long time.”last_img read more

Amin admits he was part of unsuccessful Pune franchise bid

first_imgSeeking to clear the air, interim IPL chairman Chirayu Amin on Friday said he was approached by a group of businessmen to join them in a consortium to bid for the Pune franchise about which he had written a letter to BCCI president Shashank Manohar.Reacting to ousted IPL commissioner Lalit Modi’s claim that Amin was part of the consortium that made an unsuccessful bid for the Pune franchise in March this year, he said in a statement, “I was approached by a group of businessmen to join them in the consortium to bid for the Pune franchise. I agreed to invest up to 10 per cent from one of our associate companies.”He said, “Before participating in the bid I wrote a letter to President, BCCI Shashank Manohar in this regard and also stated in my letter that further clearance would be taken from BCCI before investing in case the bid was successful.””There was therefore total transparency at every step,” Amin added.Earlier in the day, Modi had claimed that Amin was a member of the consortium headed by Aniruddha Deshpande, Managing Director of City Corporation in which Sharad Pawar and his family had 16 per cent shares, which unsuccessfully bid for the Pune franchise.”There were three members in the consortium that was part of the bid. They were Aniruddha, Akruti and Chirayu Amin,” said Modi, whose suspension saw Amin being appointed as the interim IPL chairman.”It’s a fact of life and I cannot change or distort facts. They were the bidders, one can’t change that,” Modi said.advertisementAmin, a Vadodara-based industrialist who heads the Baroda Cricket Association, was named the interim chairman in April after Modi was suspended on charges of financial irregularities, including bid-rigging.last_img read more

Only Harbhajan can match my Test record: Muralitharan

first_imgRetiring Sri Lankan spin wizard Muttiah Muralitharan on Wednesday says among the current crop of slow bowlers, only Harbhajan Singh can match his record of scalping nearly 800 Test wickets.Muralitharan, who will quit the longer version after the first Test against India beginning on July 18 at Galle, said the Indian off-spinner stood the best chance of emulating his feat.”I think only Harbhajan can do this. I don’t know how old is he and how long he will continue. But he is the only one who can achieve this feat in Test Cricket,” Muralitharan told PTI from Colombo.With 792 Test wickets under his belt from 132 matches, Muralitharan needs eight scalps in his final Test match to reach the 800-mark.In comparison, 30-year-old Harbhajan has 355 scalps from the 83 Test matches he has played so far.With Twenty20 cricket taking precedence over other formats of the game, Muralitharan feared slow bowlers might struggle to survive and get where he has reached.”In current scenario Test Cricket is dying. One day Cricket does not have bright future. Only Twenty20 is going to survive. So it will be difficult for any slow bowler to survive so long,” he said.The wily off-spinner is just eight wickets away from the 800-mark but Muralitharan, who scalped 515 wickets from 337 ODIs, insisted he was not chasing any record.”I don’t run after records. I have the world record in my name. Although if I could get eight more wickets, it could have been a good way to end. I am sure I will be able to do that in one match. If not, no worries,” said the ace spinner.advertisementLooking back at his illustrious career, Muralitharan identified batting greats Sachin Tendulkar and Brian Lara as his toughest opponents. “If we talk about the consistency, then no other batman can match Sachin and Lara. They are the best against whom I have bowled.”I had to do extra effort against them. I am happy that I will be able to bowl Sachin in my last Test,” he said. Besides being the most successful bowler in the history of international cricket, Muralitharan has been part of Sri Lanka’s 1996 World Cup winning team but the off-spinner does have some regrets.”I have achieved everything that an international cricketer can dream about. I have only one regret that I could not win (series) in India, South Africa and Australia. But one cannot get everything in life,” he said.last_img read more

Watson says ICC has failed to protect cricket from match-fixing

first_imgAustralian all-rounder Shane Watson has lambasted ICC for not cracking the whip on corruption prevalent in cricket, saying incident like the recent spot-fixing scandal is ruining the game.”Yes it could…what is happening already is ruining the game,” he said.”What happened during the Sydney Test, which is one of the most special moments of my career…to have that talked about being tainted is very sad, and most probably for the people at the game as well. People start to think, that emotion I had that day, was fabricated,” Watson was quoted as saying in The Age.Blaming the International Cricket Council for the recent ‘spot-fixing’ scandal involving the Pakistan team, Watson said world body’s anti-corruption unit is “not really working”.”The ICC anti-corruption unit is not really working,” he said in Sydney today.Watson, who has confirmed being approached by an Indian bookmaker during last year’s Ashes in England, said it was disappointing to see a newspaper sting exposed what should have actually been handled by the ICC.”These are the reasons the ICC has to really step in and totally get on top of this. They’ve known these things could have been going on, that’s why the anti-corruption unit was set up, they’ve waited for a newspaper to bring it to light.”The ICC really need to step in and really get to the bottom of it. Maybe they don’t want to get to the bottom of it because it might run too deep,” he said.advertisement”I’m more sad than anything. One thing we definitely don’t need is what’s going on, because it is horrific for the game,” added Watson.Watson said if the ICC does not act “as soon as possible”, credibility of the game may be lost forever as far as the fans concerned.”People might turn away from cricket because they don’t know (whether) what they are seeing is actually the true facts of cricket,” he said.last_img read more